Graves and Inscriptions
in the Niagara Peninsula
(By Janet Carnochan)

-Part 3-


    This is an old settlement and the graveyard is filled with all varieties of tombstones in memory of the dead; there are dozens of large altar tombs. Here are found the graves of U. E. Loyalists, military and naval men, the stranger, and the fashion of long labored inscriptions and original verses prevailed to a remarkable, almost an alarming extent.

    One of the oldest stones is that to a husband and wife who died on the same day.
"Sacred to the memory of Alexander Richie and Mary Lucia, his wife, who both departed this life at Ancaster, 11th April, 1823."

    Here near the church is a large altar tomb to one (described in "Summer Rambles" by Mrs. Jameson), who died here while visiting her sister, Mrs. McMurray, the wife of the rector, afterwards Archdeacon, of Niagara.

    "In memory of Jane, wife of Henry R. Schoolcraft, Esq., born at St. Mary's Falls, 1800; died at Dundas, May 22nd; 1842, in the arms of her sister, during a visit at the house of the rector of this church, while her husband was in England and her children at a distant school. She was the eldest daughter of John Johnston, Esq., and Susan, daughter of Waubojeeg, a celebrated war chief and civil ruler of the Odjibwa Tribe.

    Carefully educated and of polished manners and conversation, she was early fitted to adorn society, yet of retiring and modest deportment. Early imbued with the principles of true piety she patiently submitted to the illness, which for several years marked her decline and was inspired through seasons of bodily and mental depression with the lively hope of a blessed immortality.

Here rests by kindred hands enshrined
All of the loved one earth could find,
The form, the eye, the heart, the hand
So gentle once, so kind, so bland.
Death came unlooked for, yet his tread
She met so calm, so free from dread,
Like angels winged to happier spheres,
She smiled to quit a world of tears.
We mourn not then as those who see
No glorious bright eternity,
But while this stone fond hearts upraise Grief best bespeaks our love and praise.

This memorial (the maker from Albany, N. Y.,) is no doubt placed here by her husband, the Schoolcraft who wrote such valuable works on the North American Indian.

    A granite monument lately placed is to the first rector:
"Sacred to the memory of Rev. Ralph Leeming, of Yorkshire, England, ordained by the Bishop of London, first Missionary, Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts, to the Gore District and first Rector of Ancaster, born
1,89, died 1872, aged 83."

A large flat stone tells a pathetic story, showing that the "stranger within the gates" was not neglected:
"Eliza M. Johnston, of Rochester, N.Y., died 1827, aged 17.
"A strangers grave. Placed here by her local respected friends."

     Among a row of stones, all with the name of Durand, a large altar tomb bears the following:
"In memory of James Durand, born in England, 1775, died 1833, resided in the Canadas 34 years. Served his country as a Legislator and as a Captain during the late war with honour and uprightness, but above all, his Maker, as an honest man. Do unto others as you would have others do to you was the great motto of his life. His children will ever remember him as the kindest parent, and the Canadas as a patriot and friend."

"The following beautiful lines were written by himself in memory of his lamented consort Keziah Durand:

"High in the Heaven of Heavens I trust
You now repose among the just,
Thy virtues well earned meed:
The pleasing hope my soul inspires
As wages grief my bosom fires
And gives me joy indeed.

Jas. Durand."
Other lines below are written in memory of Jas. Durand by Charles Durand, who has lately published his Reminiscences continued to the present date.

"Sacred to the memory of John Palmer Battersby, Commander R. N., born 1797, died 1888.
"Thanks be unto God who giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ."

To his son Edwin "He giveth his beloved sleep," and to his wife Maria "The price of a virtuous woman is far above rubies, her children arise up and call her blessed, her husband also, and he praiseth her."

"Sacred to the memory of Major Daniel Showers, died 1858, aged 71.

"Man soon discussed Yields up his trust
And all his hopes and fears
Lie with him in the dust.

"Elizabeth Showers, his wife, born Stamford, 1787, died in Ancaster, 1848."

This last shows the early settlement of Stamford.

"In memory of Lient. W. Milne, of the Royal Navy, born at Falkirk, North Britain, A. D. 1766, died at Springfield, Ancaster, 1826."

"In memory of Helen Eliza, wife of Robt. Berrie, and daughter of the late Lieut.Col. Johnson Butler, died 1841, aged 35."

"In memory of Capt. John Urquhart, died 1882, aged 79, native of Inverness, Scotland."

The next is evidently a foreigner:
"Otto Ivese, died at the Hermitage, late of Aloumouth, Eng., died 1835."

The father of the rector died here"In memory of Wm. McMurray, died 1878, aged 82, a native of Co. Armagh, Ireland."

    A granite monument to John Aikman, who died 1878, aged 86. The name Aikman frequently occurs, and the name Rousseaux brings up the recollection of Jean Baptiste Rousseaux, the interpreter of Brant. George Rousseaux and Margaret Rousseaux lie here, while the father is buried at Niagara.


    "In memory of the Rev. George Sheed, A. M., who planted this church, and having faithfully watched over it for the space of six years, was removed to his reward 1832.
"His friends have erected this stone as a memorial of their esteem for his worth as a man and his zeal and abilities as a minister."
"The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance."

"Sacred to the memory of Euphemia Melville, wife of Capt. Alex. Roxburgh, Glengarry Light Infantry, daughter of Alex. Melville, of Farquhar, Scotland, who died in the prime of life at St. Margaret's College, 1831."

"In memory of Capt. Alexander Roxburgh, born 1774, died 1856."
"In memory of C. R. McHaffee, wife of Robert Gardener, who died at West Flamboro, 1848."
A modern granite monument with coat of arms and motto has this short inscription:
"In memory of Duncan Matheson, Lochalsh, Rosshire, Scotland, born 1782, died 1849.

"Fac et spera."



    In this small graveyard is a stone to one who is called in Carroll's Case (the history of Canadian Methodism) a saint; lie was a prisoner at the capture of Niagara and was long a class leader in the village named after him.
"George Lawrence, born March 26th, 1757, died August 5th, 1848, AE. 91 years."
The names of Casselman, Cassaday, Caughill, Cushman, Haines, Cain, are found. Barney Cain fought at Lundy's Lane. This village has rejoiced in many names The Cross Roads, Four Mile Creek, Lawrenceville, and now the classic name of Virgil to correspond with that of Homer, six miles distant.

On the Corus farm near Virgil;
"To the memory of Caspar Corus, died Nov. 24th, 1835, aged 96 years."

"In memory of Wm. Casselman, who departed this life Jan. 11th, 1847, aged 53 years."


    Several old grey stones bring to mind names well known in this peninsula.
"Sacred to the memory of James Clement, born 15th July, 1764, died 8th March, 1813, aged 49."

"Sacred to the memory of Catharine Clement, consort of the late James Clement, who departed this life 13th July, 1813, in the 45th year of her age, at the birth of her eleventh child."

"In memory of Sarah Clement, daughter of John C. Pettitt, and consort of Joseph Clement, who departed this life 9th June, 1824, aged 34."

"Sacred to the memory of Martha Pettitt, consort of John Clement, who departed this life 10th Dec., 1828, aged 59.
"Eliza Matilda Ball, daughter of Jacob H. and Katharine Ball, died Dec. 3rd, 1823, aged 11.

"My parents dear I bid farewell,
My life was short on earth to dwell,
My maker's call, I must obey,
Prepare yourselves to follow me.

    In the Stevens graveyard, very near, is buried George Caughill, killed at Lundys Lane. It is told that he was carried from the field by Barney Cain, who is buried at Virgil. The house of James Clement, who died in 1813, still stands, though built in 1805 in good repair with its fine old mantels and queer old stairs a trap for the unwary.


On the Gonder farm near Black Creek are inscriptions to several of this U. E. family.

"In memory of Jacob Gonder, a native of Pa., Lancaster Co., who died Nov. 8th, 1846, in the 71st year of his age."

"Gone Home, Mary A., wife of Jacob Gonder, died Sept. 28th, 1886, aged 82."
"Michael D. Gonder, died Stpt. 28th, 1886, aged 82."
In an old private burial place on what was formerly the first Gonder farm, (now the Stoner farm, near Welland,) was buried in 1813, Michael; Gonder, who came to Canada in 1787 and lived at Niagara for some time. David Price, who married Margaret Gonder, was Indian Interpreter at Niagara, and is buried here.
"In memory of David Price of the township of Crowland, died 26th Feb., 1841, aged 91."


    Being a lake port there are many references to sailors and loss by water or accidents. Several of the gravestones have carved the figure of a ship with canvas spread. The following inscription is unique:
"In memory of John Lawrie and Margaret Davidson, who were horn 26th Sept., 1786, married 5th July, 1811, parted 13th Sept., 1863, by his death, aged 77 and again united by her death, 15th Mar., 1865, aged 78 years. They were lovely and pleasant in their lives and in their death were not divided."
Two children have on the tombstone the quotation:
            "It was an angel that visited the green earth And took the flowers away.
Another quotation is: "God is the orphan's stay and the stranger's shield." Another the simple words: "Beyond the river." Many of those buried here hail from Scotland, and the device of a thistle is frequent.
"In memory of Capt. Jas. Neil, a native of Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1876, aged 70."


Some fond parent has given these pathetic lines:


"In memory of little Donald
"His face was gentle as the light
Of yonder deep blue sky,
Yet, like the flowers in the vale,
He bloomed but bloomed to die.

What tragic scenes caused these inscriptions ?
Charles Robertson of St. Lawrence Co., N.Y., aged 26, who met with a premature death by the falling of the boom on board the Kate Robinson of Sackett's Harbor off Port Dalhousie, 1856."
"John Aird, who was killed while on board the barge Ark, aged 14 years."
"Henry Gallagher, drowned at Port Dalhousie; erected by his affectionate mother, Rachel Davidson."
Names from the land of heather abound, as Muir, Dickson, McDougall, Anderson, Aird, Donaldson, Blair, McCulloch, Stewart, White; while other nationalities are shewn, as Ohneth, Tremaine, Pawling, Coons, Zimmerman.


    Here are found a greater number of devices, and greater variety in the nationality, as a Bible, anchor, cross, crown, ships, Masonic emblems abound, while natives of places as far distant as Flores, Massachusetts, Ireland, Italy, England; have here found a resting place for their dust, and many names shew a German origin. The lines following the name of a mariner are appropriate, as is the device of a ship with three masts and all sails set.

    "In memory of Capt. Thos. Fagan) a native of Strangford, Co. Down, Ireland, died 1858, aged 57.
"The Lord himself will keep His people safe from harm, Will hold the helm and guide the ship With His almighty arm."

Two other captains of ships, Capt. Thos. Murray and Capt. Jas. Kelly lie here.

An inscription of two words reminds us of those in the Catacombs of Rome, thus:

"Elizabeth Cole
Solomon S. Cole
Rest in peace.

    "Our father and mother: James Neelon, 1857, aged 63; Nancy, his wife. Rest precious dust."
A longer inscription on a large monument"Sacred to the memory of Thos. Read, died 1853, aged 53.
Sincerely lamented by all who knew him. His Christian faith was manifested in his life, for along with being a most affectionate husband, a kind father and a faithful friend, he was always foremost in every good work, tending to the glory of God and the good of his fellow men. Laying up for himself a good foundation.

    The only reference to the first settlers is on a fine red Aberdeen granite monument
"Lt. Col. P. Gregory, of U. E. Loyalist descent, died 1882, aged 72." The next were early called away.
Near this, "John F. Gregory, B. C. L., died at Toronto, aged 27."
"Surg. Major General Jago T. Hill, aged 28," and one younger still, "Elizabeth Walker, only daughter of Major Jno. Weyland, wife of Ambrose A. Hill, M D., aged 18 years, 1875."

"William Hill, eldest son of Solomon Hill, M. P., died 1853, aged 69."

From what distant lands came these?
"Dorothy, wife of Columbus Gildia, died 1850, aged 66 years."
"At rest, Joseph Franklin, a native of Flores, 1830-1903."

The verses here are of a higher standard than those of an earlier date:
"True to the last. Malissa, wife of Geo. Brooks, aged 35.

Here autumn winds their requiem sing
As though they mourned your early doom,
And springs first flowers each year will rise
As if in fondness oer your tomb.

Another asks a question, like that in the Lewiston grave

"0 sacred grave, what precious dust
Is here committed to your trust,
But oh, the soul is that on high
To shine forever in the sky?

Though not mentioned, the next must have been one of the earliest to come from the United States in Revolution times
"Adam Bowman. died 1865, aged 89."

As showing different nationalities, are found the names of Thuresson, Culp, Powell, Ismond, Hill, Goold, Woodall, Furminger, Pawling, Martindale, Rose.



    The largest monument is of grey limestone with white marble tablets, to George Keefer and his four wives. On one side is the old and much shattered tablet brought from the old Lutheran graveyard close to the canal and bears this inscription

"George Keefer "Born in the State of New Jersey, 8th Nov., 1773, died at Thorold, 25th June, 1858.

"Catherine, first wife of George Keefer, born 26th April, 1778, died 4th Jan., 1813.

"Jane, second wife of George Keefer, born 8th March, 1785, died 6th Jan., 1833."

"Charles Henry, M..D., of McGill Coll., died of fever contracted in the emigrant sheds, Montreal, in 1847, aged 24 years.

"Alexander, Barrister of Osgoode Hall, Toronto, and Barrister and M. P. in Victoria, Australia, died in 1862, aged 36 years, the youngest son of the alcove."

"Mary, third wife of George Keefer, born, died 25th June, 1838."

"Madeline, second daughter of a U. E. Loyalist, 4th wife of George Keefer; born 14th June, 1793, died 7th Sept., 1871."

Another side has:
    "George KeeferFounder of Thorold, was the son of George Keefer, a native of Alsace, France, who settled in New Jersey when it was a British Province, lost his life and property as a Loyalist in 1776, and was buried on Staten Island, New York. He came to Canada in 1790, served through the war of 1812-15, was the first president of the Welland Canal Company, and also of the Thorold Bible and Temperance Societies. He married, in 1797, Catherine Lampman, the daughter of a U. E. Loyalist."

The second wife was Jane Emory, widow, nee McBride. There were fourteen children, ten sons and four daughters, the only one now living is Thomas Keefer, C. E., C. M. G.; in Ottawa.

The largest granite monument is to
"John Battle, a native of the county of Sligo, Ireland, 1824-1891. In thee O Lord have I trusted."
He was proud to acknowledge that he began life as a day laborer on the Welland Canal. He became the wealthy head of many business enterprises.

"Erected by the L. O. Association to the memory of our late brother, James Shannon, born in Glenbuck, Co. Antrim, Ireland, 1807, died at Thorold, 1865. We shall inscribe his name in our memories and our works shall exhibit it."

"In memory of George Baxter, late Judge of the county of Welland, died 1893, aged 62 years. I shall be satisfied when I awake with thy likeness. Ps. 17.15."

"John McDonagh, born 1822, died 1905. Fell asleep, Victory through his cross alone."

"Sophia Williams, relict of Bernard Frey Ball," "having a desire to depart and be with Christ."

Margaret Boyle, relict of John Rowe, aged 66: "She hath done what she could."

An old grey stone, evidently brought from the old cemetery "Joseph Clement Ball. born 1828. died 1830.

"Dear little child thy time and worth How short was yielded from thy birth, Thy dying cares and pains are oer, Parted from them to meet no more."

"Jacob Ball, born 1786, died 1849."

The following inscription takes us back to the frightful Civil War of the neighboring Republic

"In memory of William Alfred Walker, who died at Andersonville, Georgia, 1864, aged 20 years. A private in C. Co., 122 N.Y. S. V. A prisoner of war."

Here are buried James Munro, born in Thurso, Scotland, 1821, long an elder in the Presbyterian church, and his wife, Elizabeth Patterson, born in Glasgow, Scotland, 1823, who has the remarkable record of having been a Bible Society collector for over fifty years.


"In memory of Alexander H. Thompson, born 1797, died 1861. His wife, Jane McLelland, born Jan. 24th, 1805, died Oct. 20th. 1867"

"In memory of Margaret Maria, (laughter of John C. Ball, and wife of Daniel Secord, died 1848, aged 32."

The names of Bogardus, Stevens, Anderson, Ball, Secord, Thompson, are found. A monument lately erected is to Frederick Stevens. aged 90.


On a stone with Masonic emblems and motto is the following inscription:
    "Here lieth the remains of an unknown brother, whose body was washed ashore near the residence of Abram Martin, Esq., Louth, on 20th Apr., 1877.
    "This tombstone is erected to show that while deceased had only on his person certain symbols to distinguish him as a Free Mason, yet were they sufficient to secure for the remains fraternal sympathy and Christian sepulture.

"Dead, voiceless, battered, tempest-tossed,
A stranger, friendless and unknown,
The wave gave up its dead,
A brother came and saw
And raised above his lonely head
This sculptured stone."

"The mystic points of Fellowship prevail
Death's gavel cannot break that sacred tie
'Gainst Light, the powers of Night can naught avail
To live in hearts we leave behind is not to die.

"Rosanna, wife of Wm. Carr, born in Co. Westmoreland, Pennsylvania, 1773, died 1863, aged 90."

"Sacred to the memory of Mark Thomas, Ensign of the late 98th Regt. of Foot, died 1866, aged 72. A native of Co. Galway, Ireland.

"But Lord to Thee I shall direct
My supplicating eyes,
O leave not desolate my soul
Whose trust in Thee relies.

"Erected by his sorrowing wife, S. E. Thomas."

"Jane Seymour, much beloved wife of Mark Thomas, a native of Ballinasloe, Co. Galway, Ireland, died 1862, aged 56.

"Sheltered beneath the Almighty's wing
Thou shalt securely rest,
Where neither sun nor moon shall thee
By day or night molest.

This must be to the first wife by the husband, and to him in turn the second wife dedicates a verse.

"John Spence, a native of Tanderagee, Ireland, 1879 aged 75.

"Susan, wife of John Spence, 1895, aged 87. Erected by herself."

A few words added to name and dates are noticeable, as"As a wife devoted, as a mother affectionate, as a friend ever kind."

And "a native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. In life beloved, in death lamented."

Among the names are several of German origin; a few are given, more familiar to the ear, Terryberry, Hunsberry, Moyer, Myers. Troup, Hare, Overholt, High, Price.


   There are two churches very near to one another. The inscriptions are remarkable for their uniformity; No information as to nationality or date of coming to the country, no title, no description, no verses, no texts, except in a few instances. Names mostly German, in which language are some of the inscriptions. Many of the old brown stones are almost illegible. The graveyard is surrounded by a stone wall, covered with wood at the top, which, in its turn, is covered with sheet iron. The oldest burial, which could be found, seemed to be 181.1.

"David Hoch Gebehrenden 11 ten April 1773 ist Gestorben den ten November 1812 hat Gelebt 39 iah 7 monath und 9 tag."

   On an old brown stone "Here lies the body of Peter Couse, who departed this life in August, 1812, aged 45 yearsThese died in the midst of war's alarms. Scripture names abound, as near together lie Joshua, Abraham, David, Jacob Grobb, and one old stone has the name of Jonas Grobb, 1811.

As a contrast a handsome granite stone is to John F. Rittenhouse, who died in 1903, and Elizabeth Honsberger, his wife, 1899.

   One quotation from holy writ appears, thus:
"Text: The rich and the poor meet together, the Lord is the Maker of them all.Prov. chap. 22, verse 2," and shewing that modern ideas were creeping in"In memory of John, son of Wm. and Rosanna Everett, who departed this life 1st Jan., 1841, aged 17 years.

"Pray all young men as you pass by
Upon this grave but cast your eye;
I in my prime was snatched away,
As you may be this very day.

And to make up for the lack of others, the next stone has two verses.

"In memory of Joseph Honsberger, who died in 1872, aged 33.

"You are most near and dear to me,
I have you in my heart;
Yet the best friends must severed be,
So you and I must part
Although I leave you for awhile
I'll meet you once again,
And if it is not in this world
'Twill be on Canaan's plain.

Does the last line but one anticipate Sir Oliver Lodge's attempt to communicate with the other world?

     The most common name is Grob others are Gratz, High, Kratz, Hoch, CuIp, Hipple, Swartz, etc. The only title found in the whole graveyard reads thus:

"Rev. David High. died 1887, aged 72.

"When from the dust of death I rise
To claim my mansion in the skies,
Even thenthis shall be all my plea, Jesus hath lived, hath died for me.

The only stone which gives a hint of the place of birth is to

"Jacob High, Sen., who died 1856, aged 78. A native of Pennsylvannia."

"M. H. Rittenhouse, died 1888, aged 73. Let my sudden exit from the earth cause thee for Heaven prepare."

On the stone to Jacob Issler and Sarah, his wife, Titus 2, 14, is quoted, "Text chosen by her: Who gave himself for us.
    These early settlers attained great age, as witness Lawrence Hipple, 80, Catherine Bushay, his wife, 83; Nicholas Clause, 80, Margaret Clause, 82, John Frettz, 96.


    The same peculiarity as at the last, with regard to titles, place of birth, the utmost reticence is observed. Many of the same names occur also, Renner, Immel, Bradt, Konkle, Burtch Snure, Doughty, Hamer. But in a few cases the rule is broken, as in the well known name
"In memory of Peter Hare, Sen., who was born May 17th, 1748, and departed this life Apr. 6th, 1834, aged 85."

"Major Peter Hare, of the 5th Lincoln Battalion, born 1794, died 1856. aged 62."

"Thos. Foly, born in Sligo, Ireland, 1814."

David Bradt, erected by John Bradt, in memory of his father.Amos Clendennen, 1819-1898.

"In memory of Philip Willis, 1786-1867, aged 80:

"Servant of God, well done;
Rest from thy loved employ,
The battle fought, the victory won,
Enter thy Master's joy.

Which is an improvement on the quaint verses of the old time elegiac order.


 In the Mennonite graveyard near Jordan are buried many old pioneers or their descendants.

"In memory of Nicholas Clause, died Sept. 18th, 1876, "Rosanna Everett died Nov. 6th, 1876. aged 82 years." "Moses Grobb died May 2nd, 1877, aged 70 years."

"In memory of Thomas Waters, died Dec. 4th, 1849, aged 88 years. Judy Waters died Jan. 18th. 1837, aged 75 years."

"In memory of Samuel Moyer, born in Pa July 25th, 1798, died Oct. 4th, 1874, aged 76 years."
"Henry Orth, died 1834, aged 53 years."

"Here lies the body of Peter Couse, who departed this life Aug. 26th, 1812, aged 45 years. The rich and the poor meet together."

"Philip High died Sept. 15th, 1838, aged 69 years. Elizabeth High died Oct. 21st. 1860, aged 86 years."


    Here, in the church of St. Saviour, the chancel window has a beautiful design. The window was to be contributed by the York Pioneers, but was finished by a general subscription. Joshua and the angel are represented with the words, "Art thou for us or for out adversaries?" The words beneath are, "In memory of Major General Sir Isaac Brock, born 14th Oct., 1769, fell in action at the battle of Queenston Heights, 13th Oct., 1812." On one side is the British coat of arms, on the other the Canadian; above are standards around drums and warlike weapons; above this a crown on one side and the words, "Magna Charta," with sword and crozier, above, a shield with laurel leaves, scallop shell of Crusaders, lion and Prince of Wales feathers. There are in the church three small memorial windows. On one, "In memory of Caroline Maria Hamilton, organist of this church, obit Feb. 6th, 1897." On the second window. "I am the resurrection and the life. In memory of Robert Charles Chilton Mewburn, born Feb. 25th, 1850, died Sept. 9th, 1854." A third small window was contributed by the children of the Sunday school, the design being a dove, lamb, vine and cup, with grapes and leaves.


Near the Old Red Meeting House.
Near the school house in a neglected spot where briars, thorns and weeds abound, were found a few tombstones, the oldest 1820: "In memory of Joseph Corwin, who departed this life Apr. 10th, 1820, in. the 19th year of his age."

    On a large gray slab, now fallen flat, "In memory of James Boyle, who died 1823; also his children, aged 9, 13 and 15," respectively.
In contrast to these early deaths there are inscriptions to several octogenarians and nonogenarians: Israel Swayzie, aged 92; Lydia Corwin 82, Abigail Swayzie 87, and Jacob Kilman, the last buried here, in 1886, aged 81 years.

    There are only two places mentioned, one of these the place of birth, and only a few verses"In memory of John Fawcett, from Yorkshire, England, died in 1849

"Dear wife thou hadst but little strength
To tread life's thorny track,
So peaceful dost thou sleep in death
Twere pain to call thee back:
The music of thy gentle tone
Tho to my bosom dear,
And though my heart is sad and lone,
I would not wish thee here.

The titles in the next are rather unusual:

"In memory of Sally Ann Howey, daughter of Mr. Isaac and Mrs. Jane Howey, died 1833, aged 19 years."

A rather unusual name is that of Christopher Spetigue.

    Two verses follow the name of Robert Patterson of Thorold, of the usual type, "Weep not for me, my mother dear, I am not dead. but sleeping here." etc.


    The most difficult place for a stranger to find was this, strange to say, on a hill, where it should be conspicuous, but the beautiful trees which are always in evidence, walnuts, oak, maple, elms conceal the spot. Such walnut trees would be difficult to find in any other town. No very old stones were found here, but many interesting inscriptions; here the nationality is recorded, the greater part being from Scotland, some from England and Ireland, one from France, one from Massachusetts.

    The most familiar name found here is that of Crooks, members of which family are buried in Niagara and Grimsby. James, John and William were early property holders in Niagara, as shewn in maps of 1795. This monument was erected by Miss Jane Crooks, the bodies being brought from West Flamboro, where they were first buried. Francis Crooks, we find, was a member of the Agricultural Society formed in Niagara in 1792 and in Washington Irving's Astoria we find the adventures of Ramsay Crooks, another member of the family, on the Pacific coast.

    The following is the inscription, in which no words are wasted:
"Hon. James Crooks, 1778-1860. Jane Cumming, his wife, 1791-1861."
"Francis, 1821-1890. Charles, 1830-1851. Archibald, 1835-1886. Leah E, daughter of Thomas Crooks, 1841- 1862. James Crooks, Jr. 1811-1841. Eleanor Dickie, his wife, 1816-1884. Children, James Ewart, 1838-1842. Ellen Eliza, 1841-1863."

    From other graveyards we find that John Crooks was born in Greenock, Scotland, and William in Kilmarnock, but this monument gives no evidence of what city was the place of birth of the Hon. James Crooks. From the inscription in Grimsby, the family must have come to Canada in 1791 or 1792.

A large monument has the record of a faithful minister of the gospel:

    "In memory of Rev. Mark Young Stark, A. M., for 31 years minister of the Presbyterian church of Dundas. He was a faithful pastor, an earnest preacher, much beloved of his flock, highly esteemed by his brethren in the ministry, respected by all who knew him and especially endeared to his family.
"This stone is erected by his bereaved and sorrowing widow and children. He was born at Dumfermline, Scotland, 1799, ordained in 1833, died in Jan. 1866. Well done good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of Thy Lord."
"Agatha B. Street, his wife, died 1898, aged 82."

"In memory of Alexis Fidele Begue, a native of France, died at Dundas, 1872, aged 66."

Another faithful and able minister is commemorated:

"In loving memory of John Laing, born 1832, died 1906, a native of Lanarkshire, Scotland. Lord thou hast been our dwelling place. Ps. 90, 1."

"Mary Gartshore, relict of the late Alex. Laing, died 1869, aged 65 Yea though I walk in death's dark vale, yet will I fear no ill."

    "In memory of Jane H. Davidson, wife of Rev. J. S. Muriow, Indian missionary, A. to K. A., died at Jerseyville, Ont., 1888, aged 62. "At evening time it shall be light". Zech. 14, 7."I shall be satisfied when I awake in thy likeness".Ps. 17, 15."

"In memory of Alexander Ogg and Eizabeth Airth, his wife, natives of Aberdeenshire"

"Wm. Baker, a native of Barnard Castle, Durham, England."

"Amos Parmenter, born in Framingham, Mass., U. S., 1797-1850. John 11.25."

The two little children, aged 4 and 6, of Rev. J. Philp, are briefly commemorated by the words:
      "The angels took her," and "Called Home."

The names of Overfield, Roxbrough, Notman, Moir, Scott, Gamble, Fleming, McKee, Cumming, Kilpatrick, Weir, Knox, Steel, occur, and some of the places of birth are: Hurlet, Dunfermlme, Fifeshire, Aberdeen, Scotland, and Warrington, England.


    This, like Dundas graveyard, is situated on hill, but, unlike it, is quite conspicuous from a distance with its many" monuments and the Presbyterian church near it, which this year of 1909 is about to celebrate the centenary of its formation as a congregation.

    Here are found many proofs of the early settlement of this district, as several old stones are marked 1807, and one which could not be found has the name of Jane Kennedy, died 1797. Traces of Canadian and British history are here found, as the Northwest Rebellion and the Boer War, in this little country village, as well as of the Revolution and the U. E. Loyalists driven here by illtreatment for faithfulness to their King. A tall monument, the second in size, also of a pioneer in the ministry, bears the inscription:

    "In memory of Rev. D. W. Eastman, died Aug., 1865, aged 87 years. Mr. Eastman was born in Goshen, N. Y., in 1778. Came to Canada in 1801, and at once entered on the work of the ministry with great energy. He was the father of the Presbyterian churches in the Niagara and Gore Districts, and for more than half a century was eminently useful as a faithful and zealous labourer in his Master's vineyard. His wife died in 1844; having lived a pious and useful life, she died a calm and peaceful death."
"Bridget, second wife of Rev. D. W. Eastman, died 1853, in her 71st year."
All four sides of the monument are covered.
Two daughters married clergymen: "Phebe, wife of Rev. J. H. Rice, aged 27, and Lydia, wife of Rev. R. H. Close, died 1843, in her 28th year. Catherine Keefer, beloved wife of Wm. 0. Eastman, died 1892, aged 84 years."

    Each name, except that of the veteran preacher, is followed by an appropriate text: "He giveth His beloved sleep, Blessed are the pure in heart, Precious in the sight of the Lord is the (death of His saints, There remaineth therefore a rest for the people of God."

    "In memory of Theresa M. Johnson, wife of John A.Gowanlock. who, on April 1st, 1885, was taken prisoner by Big Bear during the massacre at Frog Lake, N. W. T., and after two months captivity was rescued by Col. Strange.
Died Sept. 12th, 1889, aged 36 years.

    "In memory of Lieut. John E. Burch, son of O. and E. J. Burch, born at St. Anns, 1874, killed in South Africa while leading a charge against the Boers, July 16th, 1900."

    Of a different type, is the next, spending the most of his long life near the site of his interment:
"In memory of John, son of John and Charity Kennedy, born in Sussex Co., N. J., 1787, came to this province June, 17954 died 1874, aged 87. Was an honored elder of the Presbyterian church for more than fifty years. A man ready for every good work. Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord."

    Several small brown stones have merely initials and date, as skilled workmen no doubt were rare. One has the words, "A. G. Snyder, 1807," and another a little larger, "Here lies the body of Elizabeth Snyder, wife of Adam Snyder, 1807, aged 66." The lettering was rude, and some lines below indecipherable, being filled with mould. A device formerly used, the energetic use of a brush and water was not available, and, thinking some valuable information was hidden, various plans were tried, the successful one being a strong hairpin, the only result being these lines:

"My friends, mourn not for me, For why? My race is run; It was the will of God, So let His will be done."

    The names most frequently found were Roszel and Snyder. The largest monument is to Jacob Roszel, bearing Masonic emblems. An old brown stone tells that"Here lies the body of Charles Roszel, who was born
1742, and departed this life 1817, aged 75 years."
Many seem" to have attained great age, as Joseph Snyder, born in New Jersey, 1780, died at St. Anns, 1861, aged 81. His wife, 1872, aged 85.

"Benjamin Roszel, died 1869, aged 89 years. "The righteous hath hope in His death."

"Peter Snyder, born in New Jersey, 1783, died in Gainsborough, 1868, aged 84."

"Here lies the body of Mary, wife of Charles Roszel, died 1835, aged 89 years."

"Adam Snyder, died 1826, aged 86."

One whose span of life was shorter:
"Here lies George Hansel, born 1789, died 1824:

"    My flesh shall slumber in the ground Till the last joyful trumpet sound, Then burst the chains with sweet surprise, And in my Saviour's image rise.

And one still younger"William Misner, killed by the falling of a tree, aged 17.

Where we oft have met in gladness
On the holy Sabbath day,
Slowly now with tearful sadness
Each pursues his lonely way.

Another young life
"Caroline Hoffman, aged 23.

"Perhaps our time may be as short,
Our days may fly as fast,
O Lord impress the solemn thought
That this may be our last

Scripture names abound, as Zedekiah Snyder, Israel Taylor, Azuby, his wife, (probably Azubah), Israel Felker, etc.
Other names found were Lampman, Pew, Mingle, Merritt, Bowman, Freas, Ryckman, Havens, Huntsman, Erion, Hitchcock, Fisher, Beamer.


    Although Smithville was settled very early, named from Smith Griffin, (Nathaniel Griffin came in 1794,) there are very few inscriptions to show early interment s. Three wives of Abishai Morse are recorded:
"To the memory of Sally B. Morse, consort of Abishai Morse, died 1835, aged 26. This corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal immortality."
"Sarah, consort of Abishai Morse, Esq., born 1811, died 1840, in the 30th year of her age."
"Hannah, consort of Abishai Morse, Esq., died 1847, aged 47. A true and devoted Christian, a devoted wife, an excellent and affectionate mother. Her last words were, "It is well."

"The children of Abishai and Sally B. Morse. It is the Lord, let Him do what seemeth him good. Isa. 14, 18."

"Abishai Morse, j. P., son of Peter and Deborah, born at Moravia, N. Y., 1805, died 1887. An able minister of the Lord Jesus, patriotic and useful public servant, and a leader in every good cause. Know ye not that a Prince and a great man hath fallen this day?

"In mercury of Peter Morse, 1773-1832."

"In memory of Simon Emerson, born in Manchester, New Hampshire, U.S., 1810, died 1860."

The oldest inscription found was to Hiram Shaval, died 1807.

"John Henry Miller, who was killed by the fall of a horse, 1833."

"In memory of Maria Bridgman, 1806-1903, aged 97. I have kept the faith."
John P. Bridgman, Jacob M. Griffin, Abijah Urquhart
"In memory of Michael W. Turner, M. D., died 1861, aged 29. Prepare to meet thy God."

Of a goodly age were H. Howard and wife, 88 and 85 years respectively.

The names of Nixon, Buck, Merritt, Teeter, and Russ are found here.


    In this, the place of birth given is generally Scotland and Scottish thistles are found on the tombstones.

"In memory of Thomas Irvine, born at Deerness, Orkney, Scotland, 1809-1891. I shall rise.

"In memory of John Tait a native of Peebleshire, Scotland."

"In memory of Amelia,, daughter of Rev. Charles Neale, B. A., formerly rector, of Turk's Island, Bahamas."

"In memory of Richard W. Grobb, horn in Pavilion, N. Y

"John M. Durkee, aged 21. It is well."

A husband and wife attained a goodly age R. C. Griffin, 1805-1886, and Mehitable Acker, wife of R. C; Griffin, 1808 -1892.
Other names found were, McMunchee, Roy, Hull, Theal, Ness, Patterson, Hill. Oill, Field, Pysher.


    One of the earliest families to settle here, owning many acres, and here it is estimated there were 210 burials. Unfenced for years, there is now a fine group of trees and the graves and tombstones are difficult to trace from the rank weeds and shrubs. The oldest inscription is that of the first owner:.

"In memory of Charity Hess, who died 5th Nov., 1804, aged 64 years."

"In memory of Jacob Hess, who was born Nov. 16th, 1766, and departed this life Oct. 7th, 1823, aged 57 yrs. 9 m., 7 d.
"In memory of Michael Hess, who died, 5th Nov., 1808, aged 67."

"John C. son of D. K. and Catharine Servos, died Sept. 19th, 1821, AE 2 yrs., 1 m., 9 days."

These stones are all of grey limestone.

Several small ones, very old, have merely initials, "M. R.," "A. R." another "S. R.," supposed to represent the Rymal family.
"In memory of Jane, wife of John Snyder, born 11th Apr., 1781, died 11th May, 1820." This is a very massive stone.
A small marble stone has this inscription:
"William, son of Isaac and Sarah Swackhammer, died 1862, aged one year, 8 mos.

"We loved this tender little one
And would have wished him stay,
But, let our Fathers will be done;
He shines in endless day.



    Here on the mountain were interred many members of the family of, George Hamilton, from whom the city was named. Other families availed themselves of this beautiful spot, but as the city grew the land was needed, and in 1894 the city became the" owner, granting the family a plot in the cemetery and erecting an imposing granite monument to George Hamilton. The remains of the dead were removed with one exception, and interred in the city cemetery, so that now there is little trace of this old burial spot.



    The land for the church was granted by the Rymals. A stone wall surrounds the two acres of ground and many modern as well as old tombstones and monuments are found, as well as unmarked graves of early settlers. The earliest here were the families of Filman, Rousseaux, Secord, Rymal, Terryberry, Kern. The first church was Union, and built about 1824, and at one time was used as a, hospital during a period of fever and cholera, 1832. On a large heavy grey headstone a rather remarkable effusion in verse appears:

"In memory of Alice, wife of, Jas. B. English, who died 1837.

"Mourn not for me
My partner dear,
Low I must lay
Till Christ appear,
At whose arrive
A joyful rising
I hope to have
From the grave.

"Sacred to the memory of Philip Flock, who died 1828, aged 71. Funeral text Ecc. 9th chap., 12th verse: For man also knoweth not his time."

"Anne May Flock, died 1820. Deborah Kern, 1835."

Near the church, "Sacred to the memory of his reverend father, John French, who died 1825, Trusting in his Saviour's merits."

One branch of the Secord family settled here, as well as of the Servos family, though the greater part of these U. F
Loyalist familie's settled near Niagara. Here are buried Col. D. K. Servos, and his wife, Catherine Rousseaux, daughter of Jean Baptiste Rousseaux, of, the Indian department; also Mary B. Rousseaux, wife of Major Elijah Secord.
Here also rests the body of Jacob Rymal, who died 1856. aged 66 years.


    On the pillar erected at Fort Erie, where by an explosion at the attack of the Fort just when the British had gained an entrance, and fearful loss of life ensued, the nephew of General Drummond, who conducted the siege, being among the number, is found this inscription:
"Dulce et decorum est pro patria mon. In memory of the officers and seamen of the Royal Navy, the officers, noncommissioned officers and privates of the Royal Artillery. Royal Engineers, Royal Marines, 1st Royal Scots, 19th Light Dragoons, 6th, 8th (King's), 41st, 82d, 89th, 103d, 104th and De Watteville's Regiments, the Glengarry Light Infantry and the Incorporated Militia, who fell during the siege of Fort Erie, August and September. 1814.

"Officers killed during the siege of Fort Erie Col. Hercules Scott, 103d Regt.; Lieut. Col. William Drummond, 104th Regt.; Lieut.Col. John Gordon, Royal Scots; Capt. R. D. Patteson, 6th Regt.; Capt. Torrens, 8th Regt.; Capt. J. M.
Wright, 824 Regt.; Capt. Ed. Walker, Incor. Militia; Lieut. Coples Radcliffe, R. N.; Lieut. Noel, Royal Scots; Lieut. J. Rutledge, Royal Scots; Lieut. Barstow, 8th Regt.; Lieut.Pillichody, De Watteville Regt.; Ensign E. Langford. 82d Regt."

    As it is well for us to remember the names of those who gave their lives in helping the mother country in the late Boer War, the following list is given from the monument in St. Catharines, originally erected for one man, and he a private:

    "Erected to the memory of Private Alexander Watson, 90th Winnipeg Batt. Rifles, Canadian Volunteers, and his companions in arms, who fell in battle during the Rebellion in the N. W. T., A. D. 1885. Dulce et decorum est pro patria mon.

    "Lt.Col. A. T. H. Williams, Battlefield Rifles, N. W. M. Police; Corp. W. H. T. Lowry, R. B. Sleish, Const. P. Burke.
Boulton's Scouts; Capt. E. L. Brown, J. French, Intelligence Corps, at Duck Lake, Fish Creek, Cut Knife, Batoche; W Cook, W. Phillips, C. Co., I. S. C.; Private J. Watson, Bugler H. Foulkes, G. G. F. Guards; Private J. Rogers; Private Osgoode, l0th Royal Grenadiers; Lient. W. Fitch, Private T. Moore, 90th Battl'n Rifles; Lient. C. Swinford, Corp. J. Code, Private A. W. Ferguson, J. Hutchinson, W. Ennis, R. R. Hardisty, J. Fraser, G. Wheeler, Private T. H. Damanolley, Liet. A. W. Keppen.

"Major Henry M. Arnold, 90th Winnipeg Rifles, Capt. 2nd Special Service Battalion, R. C. R. I., died Feb. 23d, 1900, from wounds received in action at Paardeburg Drift. South Africa Feb. 18th, 1900.

"Lieut. J. Edgar Burch, Adjt. 2d Dragoons, attached to 1st Battalion C. M. R., on special duty, killed in action near Pretoria, South Africa, July 16th. 1900.

"Private Archibald Radcliffe, 1st Battalion C. M. R., 2d Troop, A. Squadron, Field Force, South Africa, killed near
Belfast, S. A., Sep. 23rd, 1900; Corp. Robert Irwin, 19th St.Catharines Regt. wounded at Houtuck, South Africa. May 1st. 1900. died in Bloemfontein, S. A., July 1st, 1900."



    A few inscriptions omitted in their proper place here follow. When excavating for the Welland Canal, the bodies of sixteen American soldiers, who had fallen at the battle of Beaverdams, were found. A monument was placed with the simple inscription:

"Beaver Dams, 24th June, 1813."

    Since this is the record not only of graves but inscriptions, there must not be omitted the inscriptions placed lately by the Niagara Historical Society in the town and neighborhood. Seven of these are of Queenston stone three feet high eighteen inches square, eighteen inches above the ground.with sloping face for inscription. The eighth is a white marble tablet placed on the wall of a building. The first at Fort George:
"Near this spot Gen. Sir Isaac Brock was buried from 1812 to 1824."

In the Chautauqua grounds, formerly Crookston, where the American soldiers landed:
"Here were found in Aug., 1899, the remains of three soldiers who fell in defence of their country, May 27th, 1813."

On the common near Butler's Barracks:

" The site of the Military Hospital and Indian Council House.
"This inscription is placed by the Niagara Historical Society, 1901."

I quote from memory, from an unknown writer, perhaps with interpolations of my own:

    "Of those who have gone over to the silent majority, who lie under costly monuments, in unknown graves, or under modest tombstone, soldiers or pioneers, 0 strong hands, 0 stout hearts, 0 brave souls, so long dust who bore the brunt of privation and danger, who fought and bled that we might have full and plenty, we would not that your names, nor your deeds be forgotten, and so we pen these lines to your memory."
At the foot of King street:

"The site of the Gleaner Printing Office, 1817. and Masonic Hall. 1792."

At the old King's Wharf:
"The site of Navy Hall, the long low building near is supposed to have been one of those used by Gov. Simcoe in 1792."

About three miles up the River Road:
"House of Count de Puisaye, a French Refugee, 1799."

In the market square close to the court house:
"Government House. built in time of Gov. Simcoe, burnt in 1812."

On the building;
"Niagara Court House, built for United Counties of Lincoln, Welland and Haldimand in 1847."
Seven were placed in 1901. The last in 1902. To each of these is added the words130


    "In grateful memory of Henry Pafford. 1824-1912. For 26 years Mayor of. Niagara, 45 years an officer of the Public Library, and 10 years vicepresident of the Historical Society and one to whose good taste and energy we owe the Beautiful trees on our streets and in our park. Erected here by the Niagara Historical Society, 1924."

    "To commemorate the raising of the Niagara Light Dragoons which first assembled for service at this spot on 28 June, 1812. Engagement of corps, Fort Erie 9 Oct. 1812, Queenston 13 October, 1812. Major Thomas Merritt, Commander."


    "In memoriam. This entrance is dedicated to the glory of Cod and in loving memory of Henry Pafford born May 24. 1824 died January 3, 1912 and of Hannah Elizabeth his wife, born December 24, 1825, died Feb. 10, 1899, who for many years worshipped in this Church. Lord I have loved the habitation of Thy house and the place where Thine honor dwelleth. Ps. 26.8."
    The Bells of St Marks. Six bells were presented to the Church in 1877 by Walter Augustus Dickson and John Geale Dickson in memory of their wives Catherine and Maltilda. Three Bells were added in 1917 by the Ladies Parish Guild with the proceeds of a legacy from Emma Josephine Brown, in memory of her mother, Mary Jackes Brown. Laus Deo."


"    Take heed that Ye despise not one of these little ones, for I say unto you, that in Heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in Heaven. St. Matt. XVIII 10.
"To the Glory of God and in loving memory of Hedley Leeming Anderson M. D. for more than forty years our beloved physician Erected by friends as a testimony of their affection."
    "To the Glory of God and in loving memory of Robert Charles Houghton 15th Can. Highlanders, killed in action at Hill 70 Aug. 15th 1917 and Tom Hadley Houghton, 4th Can. Battalion, killed in action near Abancourt Oct. 1st 1918, in the Great War 1914-1918. This token of affection is placed here by their parents Joseph and Emma Houghton and their brothers J. Herbert and F. Harold.


    "In memory of Norman Cummings Nelles, 2nd Lieut. Northampshire Regt. B. E. S. Killed in Flanders Jan. 29th 1915 aged 21 years."
"    Their name liveth for evermore". Erected in, Honor of the men of this parish who gave their lives in the Great War, l914-1919. Robert Best, William Mercer, Robert Houghton, Thomas Houghton, Norman Nelles, Harry Pierre, *Lawrence Sands, (This should he Leonard Sands The Word "Lawrence" is an error in be inscription.) Reginald Thomas.
    In St. Mark's School Room Maple Leaves Sunday School War Memorial "One Church One Country, T. H. Houghton, R. F. Best, R. C. Houghton, Carleton Nash, Reginald Thomas. 1918 to 1919."

In the Graveyard "Private George Mills, C. R. T., C. E. F 4th Oct. 1918. Third son of L. and M. Mills. Born in Liver pool. At rest."

"Private Roland Hughes, C. G. R., C. E. F. 14th Oct. 1918."

"Private George Nattily, Cent. Ont. Regt. C. E. F., 16th Oct. 1918. Gone but not forgotten."

"John Richard Kirby, B. A. Sc. 2nd Lieut. Royal Air Force Born in Toronto Aug. 14th 1890. Killed in an Aeroplane accident at Worthdown England in the service of his King and Country, Dec. 16th 1918.

"38 Corporal Joseph G. Keith, Welland Canal Force, 29th Oct. 1918."

    "Bugler Gordon Blake Ryan of the 92nd Highlanders. Died in active service Jan. 31, 1915. Aged 22 years.

Not lost to memory
Not lost to love
But gone to the Father's
Home above.

"Robert Follett beloved and only son of T. F. and J. F. Best." 1901-1918.

"Sergt. Ernest J. Saunders 109th Batt. Can. Militia. Born in London England. Jan. 4 1879. Died in Niagara Camp Hospital Feb. 17, 1919. Until the day break."

"Private Norman Ian Macleod, Cent. Ont. Regt. C. E. F. 25th Sept. 1918. Born in Jamaica B. W. 1. 7th August 1898. Rest in Peace."

"Lieut. George Thairs, 1850 - 1924. His son Lieut. E. F. Thairs, France 1918."

    "Col. James Fraser Macdonald, August 28th 1867July 28th 1922. Lieut. Strathcona Horse, S. A. 1900. Capt. 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, S. A. 1902. Principal Ordinance Officer for Canada 1912-1918.

"Lieut. Col. W. P. Butcher, R. C. M. 1885-1909. Permanent staff 1909-1919. Born 1866, Died 1921.


"Private Francis J. McCarthy, 24th Batt. C. E. F. 14th Oct. 1918."


"To the memory and in honor of the men of Niagara-on the-Lake who gave their lives in the Great War 1914-1918.

Best, Robert F.
Currie, Wm. Perry.
Houghton, Tom Hadley.
Longhurst, Herbert.
Nisbet, Walter L.
Ryan, Gordon B.
Shepherd, Edwin C.
Thomas, Reginald.
Thompson, Charles T.
Their name liveth for evermore.


In the westerly corner of St. Vincent De Paul's Cemetery at Niagara-on-the-Lake, directly opposite St. Mark's Church, there is a green plot enclosed by a neat iron fence. That is unique, since it contains a permanent reminder of the closing days of the Great War. When a foreign army was training on Canadian ground for a dual purpose viz: to help the allies achieve victory and to free their country (Poland), from her oppressors. In this plot 25 soldiers of the Polish Army are sleepingmen who were born in Poland, emigrated to the United States or Canada, where they enlisted for service in France during the time that Army was in training here, (Sept. 1917Mar. 1919), and who died at Niagara camp of. Influenza.

    The plot is marked by a simple yet beautiful memorial; The Cross of Sacrifice resting on the Stone of Remembrance, while each lowly grave is marked by a neat, small headstone on which the name plate of the death of the soldier is inscribed. The large Cross has inset in the Central portion, The bronze Cross of the Vertuti Militari" and around the decoration Is the inscription "Decorated by General Jos. Hailer of Poland, Nov. 27th 1923". On the Stone of Remembrance is inscribed the words "Zycie Oddaii Za Polski, Died for Poland."

    Both inscriptions tell a story of Polish patriotism and self-sacrifice and fully prove that "there are sermons in stones The Polish Plot was given free of charge by the church authorities to the Govt. of Poland as a. tribute to the splendid patriotism of these soldiers and its maintenance is paid for under an arrangement between this govt. and the church authorities.

    To the Polish People this plot is a sacred spot, a shrine to which every year there is a pilgrimage and a service of remembrance, in which hundreds of people of Polish birth from all parts of Canada and the United States participate. It is an indissolvable bond of friendship between Niagara and the Polish People. This little "corner of a foreign field, That is forever Poland."


    In the Methodist church at Ridgeway, known as the Memorial church, is a tablet erected in memory of the volunteers killed at the Battle of Ridgeway in what is known as the Fenian Raid. The base of the tablet was laid 15th Sept. 1874, under Masonic auspices, with a very imposing ceremony. The marble tablet bears the following inscription:

    "Sacred to the memory of the Ridgeway martyrs, who fell defending their country in the attempted Fenian invasion, June, 1866. Malcolm McEachren, Ensign Queen's Own, killed. Hugh Matheson, Sergeant, Queen's Own, died of wounds. William Smith. Queen's Own, killed. Christopher Anderson, Queen's Own, killed. John H. Mewburn, Queen's Own, killed. Francis Laky, Corporal, Queen's Own, killed. Mark Defries, Queen's Own, killed. William F. Tempest, Queen's Own, killed. Malcolm McKenzie, Queen's Own, killed."

"Go strew his ashes to the wind
Whose sword or voice has served mankind
And is he dead whose glorious mind
Lifts him on high?
To live in hearts we leave behind
Is not to die.

"Erected by citizens in the vicinity of the battle ground, 1874."


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Graves and Inscriptions
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